How To Test Angular JS Components With Selenium Webdriver?

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The AngularJS framework best exemplifies JavaScript’s power. Many businesses use this framework to quickly and easily build their front-end single-page applications.

With AngularJS, you can develop code that is reusable, reducing the amount of code duplication and making it simple to add new features.

According to statistics, 4,126,784 websites are now employing AngularJS in one way or the other. Alongside AngularJS’s popularity, the web development community’s need for testing frameworks that work with it has grown.

Jasmine is now the most well-known framework for unit testing Angular apps, although several competing solutions are swiftly gaining traction.

AngularJS features:

The JavaScript framework known as AngularJS has swiftly gained popularity due to its outstanding capabilities. The framework is most frequently used for creating client-side web applications by top software developers in Dallas.

It aims to streamline, expedite, and boost the efficiency of the software development process. The framework achieves this by offering capabilities like dependency injection, two-way data binding, a modular architecture, and numerous others.

Let’s examine a handful of AngularJS’s most crucial features.

Model View Controller architecture (MVC):

A popular option is the MVC design, which has three essential parts:

Model: A device for controlling an application’s data needs.

View: It is crucial for giving the user the application data they need to see.

Controller: A component that helps link the Model to the View Component.

Your software must be divided into three portions, and the appropriate coding processes must be completed. 

This is made possible using AngularJS, allowing the user to manage our coding with less time and effort properly.

Data Models Binding:

The model layer and the view layer are in sync with one another at all times. Any modifications to the model layer’s data will immediately result in corresponding modifications to the display layer and vice versa. The Model and view are automatically updated each time due to this immediate action.

Assistance Using Templates

The main advantage of using AngularJS is the exploitation of template support. To successfully meet your coding needs, you can use these templates.

Along with the excellent features already mentioned, AngularJS apps now include Karma, a unique preset testing framework. This framework uses AngularJS applications to aid in the creation of unit tests.

A component pattern is a tried-and-true approach to solving this problem in object-oriented programming. In AngularJS, they are referred to as directives, and the framework upholds the same idea of separating activity from HTML.

The following three elements make up an AngularJS application in its entirety:

  • ng-model, 
  • ng-app 
  • ng-bind.

In this part, we will discuss how these three elements contribute to the development of AngularJS apps.

  • Users can define an AngularJS application and link it to HTML using the ng-app directive.
  • The ng-model directive connects the values of the AngularJS application data to the appropriate HTML controls.
  • The ng-bind directive connects the AngularJS application’s data to the HTML tags.

Testing AngularJS applications with a range of testing techniques

Modern online application framework AngularJS promotes a consistent, cleaner, and more expressive syntax across all apps.

It can improve the efficiency and consistency of the application development process due to its emphasis on dependency injection and convention over configuration.

However, testing is necessary for AngularJS applications to ensure they function properly.

Most AngularJS developers are aware of the framework’s Model-View-Controller (MVC) foundation and the various testing options available for its applications. Today, many frameworks and libraries are accessible, making it easy to become overwhelmed by the selection.

In this section of our blog, we will look into four different frameworks devoted to testing AngularJS applications: Jasmine, Karma, Protractor, and Cypress. These frameworks are all made to test AngularJS programs.


Jasmine is one of the most well-known JavaScript unit testing frameworks. The word “Jasmine” is abbreviated as “Jasmine.” It is a great option for testing AngularJS applications because of its strict syntax and BDD/TDD flavor.


The AngularJS team created the JS runner Karma, widely regarded as one of the best tools for AngularJS testing. Jasmine is a framework that enables you to test AngularJS code, while Karma provides numerous methods that make calling Jasmine tests easier. For Karma to be installed on your computer, node JS must already be set up. The npm installer can install Karma after Node.js has been successfully installed.


For testing AngularJS apps, the Protractor testing framework was created. It is an application built with Node.js over WebDriverJS. Protractor tests are run on an instance of the application that is open in a browser at the time.

This framework may be used for functional testing, but unit and integration tests must be written separately.


It is a JavaScript end-to-end testing framework that is used to test AngularJS. Cypress customers can choose from various bundles, including Mocha, Chai, and Sinon. At the moment, Cypress is only supported by JavaScript.

There are several different frameworks available for AngularJS testing. In addition to our specialized testing frameworks, we may rely on cross-browser testing platforms like LambdaTest for the more complex testing requirements.

This platform is an example that has drawn a lot of interest from software developers and testers in numerous nations worldwide.

Angular Application testing via Selenium

When we try to use HTML to represent dynamic views in web applications, it falls below our expectations. HTML is great for describing static pages. An open-source front-end web framework, AngularJS, based on JavaScript, can be used to create dynamic web applications.

The HTML language gains several new features as a result. This is the only technique available for creating SPAs (Single Page Applications).

Since its whole codebase was rewritten in typescript, AngularJS has started to be referred to simply as Angular. Version 1. x are called AngularJS, while version 2 of the framework goes by the moniker Angular.

How Do Automation Testers See It As Different From a Regular Web Application?

Common attributes like an ID, name, and value that may all be used to locate the element are frequently included in HTML elements. However, Angular extends HTML and incorporates additional attributes known as directives. Utilizing the attributes, these directives are used to create dynamic HTML content.

Because it uses variable features, there are times when we are unable to utilize the inspector to find the value of an attribute.

As a result, we are compelled to look through the HTML page’s source code. ng-bind, ng-class, ng-model, ng-options, etc., are some names of angular attributes.

On the other hand, Angular applications could not contain the ID name and class characteristics that Selenium offers element locating algorithms that rely on.

You will need to run some JavaScript code to wait for the website to load. To continue, this JavaScript will look for the Angular Requests state and wait till it has finished rendering.

Is Protractor the only available option for automating Angular applications?

Protractor, an end-to-end testing framework, was created to automate Angular and AngularJS applications. It allows you to test Angular-specific components without putting any effort into setting up the test environment because it supports Angular-specific locator strategies.

Because it can automatically run the following stages in your tests the moment the web page completes its pending tasks, you won’t have to worry about wasting time waiting for your test and the web page to synchronize.

WebDriverJS is wrapped in Protractor. The tests will be created using Protractor and JavaScript as the programming language. However, several considerations make Java and Selenium-based test automation superior to JavaScript-based test automation.

Modern functionality is easily accessible in Java unit testing frameworks like TestNG and JUnit.

Selenium with Java is used by at least 60% of companies, and as a result, more help is available via blogs, organizations, forums, and GitHub.

Selenium with Java lacks Protractor’s functionality in automating Angular applications.

Ng Webdriver with Selenium automating Angular Applications:

There are a few challenges to solve when using the Selenium library to automate Angular apps. It would help us to understand more about Angular and how it differs from traditional web apps in terms of automation as we look into these issues.

An open-source front-end web framework based on typescript is called Angular. For the development of dynamic web applications. With new attributes known as directives, Angular extends HTML to enable dynamic content production.

It is being used widely because of its intrinsic properties, which include the ability to load content dynamically, the ability to develop single-page apps, and the effectiveness with which it can render data in tables. Version 1 is “AngularJS,” but versions two and above are referred to as “Angular.”

The core units of an Angular application are components. Angular’s dynamic component loading functionality is made possible by the application programming interface (API) element, which also helps applications load new components while running.

Angular websites and applications can be recognized in a variety of ways.

Each trait emphasizing or defining an element of the Document Object Model is contained in a directive (DOM). These instructions provide the DOM element the ability to act in specific ways.

The directives comprise, among other things, the elements ng-bind, ng-model, ng-class, ng-repeat, ng-version, and ng-click. If any of these directives are applied, checking the source code in the browser console will show whether or not Angular is being used for the website or application.

The biggest challenges to successfully automating an AngularJS application with Selenium include difficulties in automating Angular Synchronization and the absence of angular-specific locating strategies like ngmodel, ngrepeater, and ngbinding.

While Protractor is a better choice for automating Angular projects, it will not be considered. Let’s look at some of the methods that can assist us in overcoming the challenges previously mentioned regarding Selenium.


In Selenium, NgWebDriver is a tool that can be used to get around the issues mentioned above. It is a Java library with additional Angular and numerous web driver locators.

Firefox, Chrome, and all other browsers using the Selenium WebDriver are compatible with it. This package makes it feasible to use Java and Selenium to automate Angular applications.


There are numerous advantages to using NgWebDriver. Angular requests in the queue are handled without additional JavaScript code. This provides users with new locator methods for identifying angularly specific properties.

The challenges can be overcome by using WebDrive, which enables users to create scripts in the java programming language without worrying about synchronization issues.

Even though Selenium probably supports implicit, explicit, and fluent waits, these wait conditions could be better for angular apps.

Read More: Running Tests In Parallel With Cypress To Improve Speed And Efficiency

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